The styles of visual arts are countless. Often they do not have any expressed boundaries and can seamlessly move from one to another, while being in continuous development, opposition and blending. Most art styles coexist at the same time and for this reason there are almost no “pure styles”. We present you the most popular styles of painting.
Gothic style. Was formed in Western and Central Europe in the XII-XV centuries. It was the result of the centuries-old evolution of medieval art, its highest stage and at the same time the first ever European international artistic style. It covered all kinds of art – architecture, sculpture, painting, stained-glass windows, book decorations, and crafts. The basis of the Gothic style was the architecture, which is characterized by ascending arches, multicolored stained-glass windows, visual dematerialization of the form.
Renaissance – a period in the cultural and ideological development of a number of countries in Western and Central Europe, as well as some countries in Eastern Europe. The main distinguishing features of the culture of the Renaissance are: secular character, a humanistic worldview, reference to the ancient cultural heritage, a sort of its “revival”. The culture of the Renaissance has specific features of the transition period from the Middle Ages to the new times, in which the old and the new, interwoven, form a new mix.
Mannerism – (from Italian maniera – manner) a style in European art of the XVI century. Representatives of Mannerism departed from the Renaissance harmonic perception of the world, the humanistic conception of a man as the perfect creation of nature. Acute perception of life was combined with a program aspiration according to which an artist did not follow nature and expressed the subjective “inner idea” of the image that is born in the artist’s soul. Italian Mannerism of the 1520s. (Pontormo, Parmigianino, Giulio Romano) is characterized by dramatic sharpness of images, the tragedy of the world view, the complexity and exaggerated expression of postures and motifs, the elongation of proportions of figures, coloristic and black and white dissonances.
Baroque – a historical artistic style, which widely spread in Italy in the middle of XVI-XVII century, and then in France, Spain, Flanders and Germany XVII-XVIII centuries. More broadly this term is used to determine the ever-renewing tendencies of a restless, romantic worldview, thinking in expressive, dynamic forms. Baroque period is a stage characterized by the highest creative uplift, the tension of emotions.
Classicism – artistic style in Western European art of XVII – early XIX century and in the Russian XVIII – early XIX century. It forms a reference to the ancient heritage as an ideal for imitation. It manifested itself in architecture, sculpture, painting, arts and crafts. Classicism artists considered antiquity to be the highest achievement and made it their standard in art, which they sought to imitate. Over time, he was re-born into academicism.
Romanticism – a style in the European and Russian art of the 1820s-1830s, which replaced the classicism. Romantics emphasized the individuality, contrasting the “ideal” beauty of the classicists with “imperfect” reality. The artists were attracted by bright, rare, extraordinary phenomena, as well as imaginative images. A great role in the art of romanticism is played by acute individual perception and experience. Romanticism freed art from abstract classical dogma and turned it to national history and folkloric images.
Realism is a style in art, striving to display both the external form and the essence of phenomena and things with the greatest truth and reliability. As a creative method combines individual and typical features in the creation of the image. This style is the longest in time existence developing from the primitive era to our days.
Symbolism – a style in the European artistic culture of the late XIX-early XX centuries. Symbolism emerged as a reaction to the domination of the norms of bourgeois “sanity” in the humanitarian sphere (in philosophy, aesthetics-positivism, and art-naturalism) in the French literature of the late 1860s and 70s, later spread in Belgium, Germany , Austria, Norway, Russia. The aesthetic principles of symbolism largely derived from the ideas of romanticism, as well as to certain doctrines of the idealistic philosophy of A. Schopenhauer, E. Hartmann and others. Symbolism contrasted the world of visions and dreams to reality. A universal tool for understanding the mysteries of being and individual consciousness was considered to be a symbol engendered by poetic insight and expressing the otherworldly meaning of phenomena hidden from ordinary consciousness. The artist was regarded as a mediator between the real and the supersensible, finding “signs” of world harmony, prophetically guessing the signs of the future both in modern phenomena and in the events of the past.
Impressionism – style in the art of the last third of the XIX – early XX century, which arose in France. Impressionism claimed the beauty of the real world, emphasizing the freshness of the first impression, the variability of the surrounding. Impressionism had a powerful impact on the art of European countries and the United States. (E. Manet, E. Degas, O. Renoir, C. Monet, A. Sisley and others)
Modern – art style in European and American art of the end of XIX-beginning of XX centuries. It contemplated and stylized features of different periods worked out own artistic device based on the principles of asymmetry and decoration. Natural forms also became objects of modern stylistic. This explains the interest to vegetable ornaments and also their composite structure – the abundance of curvelinear forms, uneven contours resembling vegetable shapes.
Avant-gardism is the name that unites a number of artistic trends prevalent in the 1905-1930’s. (Fauvism, Cubism, Futurism, Expressionism, Dadaism, Surrealism). All these styles are united by the desire to update the language of art, to rethink its tasks, to gain freedom of artistic expression.
Primitivism is the deliberate simplification of pictorial means, imitation of primitive stages in the development of art. This term denotes the so-called naive art of artists who did not receive a special education, but involved in the overall artistic process of the XIX – early. XX century. The works of these artists have a peculiar childishness in the interpretation of nature, a combination of a generalized form and small literalism in details. Primitivism of form does not predetermine the primitiveness of content. It often serves as a source for professionals who have borrowed forms, images, methods from folk, essentially primitive art.
Cubism – style in the first half of the twentieth century. The language of cubism was based on deflation and the spread of ideas on a geometric flatness, the plastic shift of the form. Cubism was born on 1907-1908 – the eve of the First World War. The undisputed leader of this trend was the poet and publicist G. Apollinaire. This style was one of the first to embody the leading trends in the further development of 20th century art. One of these trends was the dominance of the concept over the artistic self-worth of the picture.
Surrealism – the flow in literature, painting and cinema, emerged in 1924 in France. It greatly contributed to the formation of the consciousness of modern man. Surrealism expressed the idea of existence beyond the limits of the real; the absurd, unconscious, dreams become especially important here. One of the characteristic methods of the surrealist artist is a detachment from conscious creativity, which makes it an instrument in various ways extracting bizarre images of the subconscious, related to hallucinations.
Pop-art – as an art style emerged approx. at 1950s in the UK and later in America. The main theme of pop art is ordinary subjects. It focuses on vulgar and banal elements of any culture, as a rule, ironically. Pop art is quite popular in various aspects of mass art: comics, advertising, etc.
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